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The essential steps in winemaking can be summarized as follows:


Extract the flavor and aroma from the base ingredients by chopping, crushing, pressing, or soaking the fruit. Do not boil fruit.


Add sugar, nutrients, and yeast to the fermentation media or liquor to achieve the proper ratio and ferment – remain covered for 3 to 10 days in a primary fermentation vessel (crock, jar or polyethylene pail) at 70-75 degrees Fahrenheit. If the temperature is too high it will kill the yeast – if it is too low it will not ferment. To a gallon of liquid – 1 lb. sugar for every gallon of fruit juice and 2 lbs. sugar every gallon of water. (rule of thumb)


This should bring the juice to 23-25 Brix on Balling Scale of hydrometer add sugar until you reach this level.


Strain off the liquid from the pulp, put the liquid into a secondary fermentation vessel (a carboy or jug) - fit a fermentation trap (airlock – which allows gas to escape but admits no air) on the mouth of the bottle and allow fermentation to proceed at 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit until all bubbling ceases (after several weeks). Should be -1 to 0 Brix on Balling Scale of hydrometer


Siphon the wine off the sediments (lees) into another clean secondary fermentation vessel. Reattach the fermentation trap. Repeat after one or two months and again before bottling.


When wine is clear and all fermentation has stopped, siphon into wine bottles and cork the bottles securely. Add Sorbate and Acid Blend (DO NOT ADD ACID OR SORBATE UNTIL FERMENTATION IS COMPLETE). Leave corked bottles upright for 3-5 days and then store them on their side at 55 degrees Fahrenheit for six months (white wine) and for a year (red wine) before sampling. If not up to expectations, allow to age another year or more. To sweeten use hydrometer, semi-sweet is 4 Brix and 8 Brix is sweet. Over time in bottle Brix will usually decrease by 1-1.5.


7 lbs. sugar, tannin, yeast nutrient, Camden, pectin enzyme, yeast to start for 5 gallons